Unveiling the Secrets of the Periodic Table

The video explores the limits of the periodic table, discussing the challenges in discovering new elements beyond element 118 and the potential for stable superheavy elements.

00:00:00 The video discusses the number of elements discovered and how the periodic table ends at element 118. It explains that atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and that the variety of chemical elements is not infinite because atoms with infinite protons are impossible. Neutrons help balance the repulsion between protons in the nucleus, but as the number of protons increases, more neutrons are needed. This results in a higher neutron-to-proton ratio as you move across the periodic table.

🔢 There are currently 118 known chemical elements, with each element having one more proton than the previous one.

📏 The periodic table is finite because atoms with an infinite number of protons are impossible.

🧲 Neutrons balance out the repulsion between protons and keep them together in the atomic nucleus.

00:02:22 Discovering the remaining elements. Elements with more than 82 protons are unstable and eventually transform into lead. Most lead atoms on Earth were originally radioactive uranium or thorium atoms. The rate of transformation is measured by the half-life.

⚛️ Elements with more than 82 protons are unstable and eventually convert into lead.

🔬 Radioactive atoms undergo transmutation and lose protons to become lighter elements.

⏲️ The period of semidisintegration represents the time it takes for half of a radioactive element's mass to convert into another.

00:04:46 Discovering new elements is a challenge due to their instability. Atoms with more than 100 protons are so unstable that they have very short lifetimes. It is unlikely that there are thousands or millions of undiscovered elements. Adding protons to an atom makes it more unstable, but there are certain combinations of protons and neutrons that produce long-lived atomic nuclei.

🌍 Our planet still has half of its original uranium, while the rest has transformed into other elements.

⚛️ Atoms with more protons are more unstable and transform into other elements more quickly.

☢️ Elements with over 100 protons are so unstable that they have extremely short lifetimes.

00:07:07 The video discusses the existence of undiscovered super heavy elements and the potential for islands of stability in the periodic table.

🔑 The known stable elements follow a diagonal line that ends at 82 protons.

⚛️ Elements with more protons and neutrons are more stable and have longer half-lives.

🌊 There may be islands of stability in an ocean of instability, where superheavy elements could exist.

00:09:28 The video discusses the possibility of an island of stability in the periodic table and the potential existence of superheavy elements. It suggests that there may be a small number of undiscovered elements that would fit into this island of stability.

🔬 There may be an island of stability in the periodic table for super heavy elements.

⚛️ Adding more neutrons to atoms can increase their stability.

⚗️ There are estimated to be a few dozen super heavy elements left to discover.

00:11:50 The video discusses the challenge of discovering new elements beyond the periodic table's limit. Current particle accelerators are unable to create heavier atoms, and searching for super heavy elements in nature has been unsuccessful. The possibility of finding them in space, such as in supernovas or neutron star collisions, is mentioned. However, the technology to identify these elements from celestial bodies is currently beyond our reach.

🔍 Current particle accelerators are unable to create elements beyond 118 protons

🌌 Supernovas and neutron star collisions may produce superheavy elements

💫 The mysterious Sibilski star contains unstable elements and could hold elements from an island of stability

00:14:11 Exploring the universe for new elements may not be fruitful, as stable and useful elements are already known. Chemistry knowledge will help us survive in space.

🌌 The elements from the islands of stability would be super scarce and super radioactive, making them unlikely to be seen in everyday life.

🎯 We already know all the useful elements, so in a way, we know the entire periodic table.

🪐 When exploring the universe, we can rely on our knowledge of chemistry to obtain the necessary resources for survival on other planets.

Summary of a video "¿Cuántos Elementos nos Faltan por Descubrir?" by CienciaDeSofa on YouTube.

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